As technology becomes integrated into more aspects of our lives, the profile of risks associated with technology is also expanding. New advances in many kinds of technologies pose potentially, significant ethical challenges (e.g. ‘Artificial intelligence’ (AI), ‘Biotechnology’, or decarbonization technologies). This coincides with our increasing use of these technologies, creating potential risks at a macro-level (e.g. cybersecurity of a nation’s critical infrastructures) and at a micro-level (e.g. security of personal data and individuals’ vulnerability to online manipulation). Such risks are certainly to be expected with the advent of disruptive technologies and they are the price we have to pay for the great benefits these technologies offer us; it is a question of how well we recognize and mitigate these risks so as to ensure that new technologies can be used for the benefit of all.

Ethics of technology

Many governments around the world are turning their attention to the ethics of technology and the implications of fast-developing technology for future societies.

Ethics related to the use of ‘Artificial intelligence’ for automated vehicles, automated decisions, and consumer interactions are topics that are frequently raised[1] and governments will increasingly be expected to address concerns around digital harm, disinformation, antitrust and foreign interference.[2] The AI-enabled technologies of the future must benefit from effective ‘technical, legal, and ethical frameworks’, according to the UK Ministry of Defence. Ethical questions are perhaps most critical in the area of militarized AI, and the use of technology in conflict. While machines could behave without regard for human suffering, they may also more accurately calculate the costs of conflict. Complexities can be expected to arise if countries develop conflicting ethical and legal frameworks for AI, both in military contexts and more broadly.[3] Other key ethical issues related to AI systems are about unwanted bias, eavesdropping, and safety, and industry is already busy trying to address these. The ISO/IEC committee working on AI (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 42) has collected 132 use cases for AI, including ethical considerations and societal concerns for each (for more details, see ISO/IEC TR 24030:2021, Information technology – Artificial intelligence (AI) – Use cases).

When considering the ethics of using AI, however, it is equally important to consider the ethics of not using AI. The risks of using AI are frequently discussed, but one question that is not addressed often enough is – when does it become unethical for us not to use AI? For example, if AI technology could predict the next pandemic or speed up vaccine development, one could argue that it would be unethical not to use this technology. There are plenty of examples like this, for instance, a common question posed is: if an AI-enabled autonomous vehicle had to hit someone, who should it hit? But is this the right question if the proper use of AI-enabled autonomous driving can help save lives by reducing accidents overall?

Of course, AI is not the only emerging technology that could pose significant ethical challenges in the future. Advancements in biotechnology could – alone, or in combination with AI – lead to the creation of synthetic life forms or augmented human beings, with enhanced physical or cognitive abilities. How to regulate technologies that can fundamentally alter human capabilities or change the human gene pool “could prompt strident domestic and international battles” in coming decades (see ‘Gene editing’).[4] Even technological advances to treat diseases could engender political debates about the ethics of access (since treatments are likely to be available only to those who can afford them).[4] Not to mention continued ethical debates about genetically engineered crops and foods and their potential ecological or health-related consequences.[5]

As the climate crisis becomes more urgent, we may also soon face ethical issues related to the use of new technologies for decarbonization. While geoengineering technologies (carbon dioxide [CO2] removal and solar-radiation management) have for many years been considered morally unacceptable, they are now gaining more attention as potential solutions of last resort.[6] Ethical concerns here range from distributive justice for future generations or vulnerable populations (negative effects of geoengineering actions could disproportionately some countries or populations e.g. by increasing drought in Africa and Asia), to procedural justice questions (who should decide to use these technologies and how?).

News stories

Искусственный интеллект (ИИ) может помочь прогрессу во всем, начиная с медицины и заканчивая спасением планеты, но по мере того, как технология становится все более сложной, возникают вопросы доверия. …
Принятие этических решений – это не просто еще одна форма решения проблем. По мере того как влияние и возможности искусственного интеллекта (ИИ) растут, эксперты работают над новыми областями международных …
Smart organizations have long relied on data to help make strategic business decisions. But “big data” has its challenges that need to be addressed before it can have real impact. A new study group will …
Технический комитет
ISO/IEC JTC 1
Information technology
  • Опубликовано 3479 | Проекты на стандии разработки 515
Технический комитет
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 42
Artificial intelligence
  • Опубликовано 25 | Проекты на стандии разработки 31
  • ISO/IEC TS 12791 [В разработке]
    Information technology
    Artificial intelligence
    Treatment of unwanted bias in classification and regression machine learning tasks
  • ISO/IEC AWI TS 22443 [В разработке]
    Information technology
    Artificial intelligence
    Guidance on addressing societal concerns and ethical considerations
  • ISO/IEC 23894:2023
    Information technology
    Artificial intelligence
    Guidance on risk management
  • ISO/IEC TR 24368:2022
    Information technology
    Artificial intelligence
    Overview of ethical and societal concerns
Технический комитет
ISO/TC 241
Road traffic safety management systems
  • Опубликовано 4 | Проекты на стандии разработки 1
  • ISO 39003:2023
    Road traffic safety (RTS)
    Guidance on ethical considerations relating to safety for autonomous vehicles
Технический комитет
ISO/CASCO
Committee on conformity assessment
  • Опубликовано 38 | Проекты на стандии разработки 6
  • ISO/TS 17033:2019
    Ethical claims and supporting information
    Principles and requirements

Data privacy

“Trust and accountability are the new litmus tests for businesses in a world where digital is everywhere.”[7]

In the future, will data privacy be a thing of the past? Many sources agree that there is a clear trend towards the progressive loss of privacy that accompanies new developments in technology. According to the UK Ministry of Defence, “In the coming decades, every facet of one’s life is likely to be recorded by the ubiquitous presence of wearable devices, smart sensors and the ‘Internet of Things’”.[3] But at the same time, there is also a trend towards emphasizing privacy, for example, using privacy by design development. Once privacy-respecting technology is available, the market has the choice, and the global success of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) principles is an indicator of this trend.[8]

The use of biometric data, such as fingerprints and facial mapping, is increasing in both private (e.g. social media and personal technology products) and public (law enforcement and population surveillance) contexts.[9,10] Consumer trust will be an increasingly important issue as technology becomes increasingly prolific in everyday activities. Already, a majority of consumers are wary of connected devices and fearful of misuse of their personal data.[7,11] Some even suggest there may be a ‘digital bubble’, the bursting of which will be due in part to privacy concerns – “Concerns about data privacy have called into question whether digital technologies will continue to grow at this rate.”.[11] At the same time, companies are adjusting to market conditions and, if the market demands privacy, industry will develop appropriate products.[7] Industry needs to realize that privacy-respecting products are not much more expensive (if well done), but can instead provide a competitive advantage, since trust is a key decision factor for consumers faced with multiple options. Initiatives allowing the creation of ‘digital trust’, such as Yelp and Foursquare, are thus likely to grow in popularity.[12] Once society acknowledges that data has a value and therefore the data owner needs to be paid, a ‘new balance’ will be established. The question is, if and when such an acknowledgement may come…?

In the meantime, to reassure consumers, both government regulation and business leadership are necessary to establish privacy and data management standards that keep pace with emerging needs.[10] Indeed, this will be a growing consumer expectation.[7] Ultimately, it seems inevitably that technology will permeate almost everything we do and lead to enormous improvements in quality of life across society. However, these benefits will need to be carefully balanced with the accompanying risks to privacy and security.[12]

News stories

Для всех, кто обеспокоен вопросами конфиденциальности в сети, опубликован стандарт ISO/IEC 29184.
Только что обновленный стандарт ISO/IEC 27009, позволит предприятиям и организациям из всех секторов решать вопросы информационной безопасности, кибербезопасности и конфиденциальности.
Защита частной жизни является общественной потребностью в мире, котором все становится подключенным. Поскольку требования к защите данных ужесточаются, ISO/IEC 27701 может помочь бизнесу в управлении своими …
Мы как никогда связаны друг с другом, получая радости и риски нашего цифрового мира. Кибербезопасность вызывает все большую озабоченность, поскольку за последние несколько лет число атак на бизнес почти …
Накануне новых руководств ЕС, а также в результате недавних крупномасштабных нарушений требований в области конфиденциальности, новый комитет ИСО разрабатывает руководящие принципы, которые помогут вернуть …
Технический комитет
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27
Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection
  • Опубликовано 240 | Проекты на стандии разработки 71
  • ISO/IEC AWI 5181 [В разработке]
    Information technology
    Security and privacy
    Data provenance
  • ISO/IEC 24745:2022
    Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection
    Biometric information protection
  • ISO/IEC FDIS 24760-1 [В разработке]
    IT Security and Privacy
    A framework for identity management
    Part 1: Terminology and concepts
  • ISO/IEC WD 24760-4.3 [В разработке]
    IT Security and Privacy
    A framework for identity management
    Part 4: Authenticators, Credentials and Authentication
  • ISO/IEC DIS 27006-2 [В разработке]
    Requirements for bodies providing audit and certification of information security management systems
    Part 2: Privacy information management systems
  • ISO/IEC WD 27091.2 [В разработке]
    Cybersecurity and Privacy
    Artificial Intelligence
    Privacy protection
  • ISO/IEC 27553-1:2022
    Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection
    Security and privacy requirements for authentication using biometrics on mobile devices
    Part 1: Local modes
  • ISO/IEC CD 27553-2.2 [В разработке]
    Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection
    Security and privacy requirements for authentication using biometrics on mobile devices
    Part 2: Remote modes
  • ISO/IEC 27556:2022
    Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection
    User-centric privacy preferences management framework
  • ISO/IEC 27557:2022
    Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection
    Application of ISO 31000:2018 for organizational privacy risk management
  • ISO/IEC 27559:2022
    Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection – Privacy enhancing data de-identification framework
  • ISO/IEC TS 27560:2023
    Privacy technologies
    Consent record information structure
  • ISO/IEC 27561 [В разработке]
    Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection
    Privacy operationalisation model and method for engineering (POMME)
  • ISO/IEC DIS 27562 [В разработке]
    Information technology
    Security techniques
    Privacy guidelines for fintech services
  • ISO/IEC TR 27563:2023
    Security and privacy in artificial intelligence use cases
    Best practices
  • ISO/IEC CD 27565 [В разработке]
    Guidelines on privacy preservation based on zero knowledge proofs
  • ISO/IEC WD 27566 [Удален]
    Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection
    Age assurance systems
    Framework
  • ISO/IEC DIS 27701 [В разработке]
    Security techniques
    Extension to ISO/IEC 27001 and ISO/IEC 27002 for privacy information management
    Requirements and guidelines
  • ISO/IEC 29100:2024
    Information technology
    Security techniques
    Privacy framework
  • ISO/IEC 29134:2023
    Information technology
    Security techniques
    Guidelines for privacy impact assessment
Технический комитет
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 32
Data management and interchange
  • Опубликовано 102 | Проекты на стандии разработки 22
  • ISO/IEC CD 15944-8 [В разработке]
    Information technology
    Business operational view
    Part 8: Identification of privacy protection requirements as external constraints on business transactions
  • ISO/IEC DIS 15944-12 [В разработке]
    Information technology
    Business operational view
    Part 12: Privacy protection requirements (PPR) on information life cycle management (ILCM) and EDI of personal information (PI)
  • ISO/IEC FDIS 15944-17 [В разработке]
    Information technology
    Business operational view
    Part 17: Fundamental principles and rules governing Privacy-by-Design (PbD) requirements in an EDI and collaboration space context
Технический комитет
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 36
Information technology for learning, education and training
  • Опубликовано 56 | Проекты на стандии разработки 8
  • ISO/IEC CD 29187-1 [В разработке]
    Information technology
    Identification of privacy protection requirements pertaining to learning, education and training (LET)
    Part 1: Framework and reference model
Технический комитет
ISO/TC 260
Human resource management
  • Опубликовано 31 | Проекты на стандии разработки 6
  • ISO/AWI 30439 [В разработке]
    Human Resource Management
    Data Privacy Standard
Технический комитет
ISO/PC 317
Consumer protection: privacy by design for consumer goods and services
  • Опубликовано 2
  • ISO 31700-1:2023
    Consumer protection
    Privacy by design for consumer goods and services
    Part 1: High-level requirements
  • ISO/TR 31700-2:2023
    Consumer protection
    Privacy by design for consumer goods and services
    Part 2: Use cases

Cyber-vulnerability

Increasing reliance on technology and the proliferation of digital devices in daily life will create increasing risks related to ‘Data privacy’, cyberattacks, and consequences of system failure.[3,13] The key factor for prevention is risk awareness and proactive risk mitigation.

New digital technologies present serious challenges for governments and organizations and cybersecurity will remain a priority as critical infrastructure is increasingly connected to online systems and technological dependence on the Internet continues to rise (see ‘Spread of the Internet’). Internationally, countries will have to respond to evolving cyber-threats and prepare for cyberattacks as an instrument of war, counterintelligence, and political interference.[9,13,14] One data breach can impact multiple nations sharing online systems.[15] If they are aware, national leaders may take appropriate steps to protect large-scale systems such as electrical, communications, financial, logistical, and food-production grids.[9] They need to be proactive. Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation or the EU Cybersecurity Act are two examples of such proactive ventures.

Questions around ‘cyber borders’ may be part of the discussion around ensuring protection from attacks therefore countries and organizations alike must prepare for developments in cyber-crime.[3] As increasing numbers of citizens are connected to, and reliant on, online networks, the potential for terrorist attacks will grow, if the system is not resilient enough and sufficiently protected.[9] For developing countries in particular, preparedness for cyber-threats will need to accompany digitalization programmes and development of connected systems.[16]

Finally, cyber-vulnerability does not exist only at the level of countries and organizations. Looked at from a slightly different perspective, the vulnerability of individuals is also set to increase because of their online exposure. For example, more people will get their information online, leaving them potentially more exposed to misinformation (‘fake news’), which could be used to manipulate individuals or even on a larger scale to influence public opinion.[13]

To effectively mitigate these risks related to cyber-vulnerability, people cannot rely on government action alone – society needs to be the driving force. Society needs to demand that organizations maintain highly sophisticated information security systems to foster consumer trust and remain competitive.[2]

News stories

Недоверие толкает нас на самоограничивающие стигмы, но международные стандарты могут помочь нам быть уверенными в своей уязвимости и устойчивости.
В эпоху цифровых технологий, характеризующуюся дезинформацией и фальшивыми новостями, большой проблемой является установление доверия к самим технологиям. 
Кибер-атаки являются дорогостоящей, разрушительной и всё более серьезной угрозой как для бизнеса, так и для правительств и общества. Как же защитить свои активы?
Кибер-атаки дорогостоящи, разрушительны и представляют собой растущую угрозу как для бизнеса, так и для правительств, и самого общества. К счастью, целый арсенал стандартов помогает нам всегда оставаться …
Только что был опубликован новый стандарт, защищающий от хакеров.
Почему образование - наше лучшее оружие против киберпреступности.
Только что опубликовано новое руководство по системам кибербезопасности.
По мере того, как мир становится все более взаимосвязанным, наши машины также включаются в глобальную сеть. Но большая взаимосвязанность означает большее количество передаваемых данных, которые могут попасть …
В нашем сверхподключенном мире ИТ-безопасность включает не только наши данные, но и практически все движущиеся предметы, включая оборудование.
По оценкам отраслевых экспертов, к следующему году ежегодные потери от киберпреступности могут вырасти до 2 трлн долларов США1). В связи с бесчисленным количеством новых предметов, появляющихся каждый …
Поскольку технологии становятся все более изощренными и открывают новые возможности, так и новые уязвимости, и угрозы, существует опасность того, что организации различных типов будут подвержены атакам …
Представьте, что преступник использует Вашу видео-няню, чтобы следить за Вашим домом. Или Ваш холодильник отправляет спам от Вашего имени различным людям, которых Вы даже не знаете. Теперь представьте, …
Технический комитет
ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 27
Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection
  • Опубликовано 240 | Проекты на стандии разработки 71
  • ISO/IEC TR 5895:2022
    Cybersecurity
    Multi-party coordinated vulnerability disclosure and handling
  • ISO/IEC TR 6114:2023
    Cybersecurity
    Security considerations throughout the product life cycle
  • ISO/IEC 24392:2023
    Cybersecurity
    Security reference model for industrial internet platform (SRM- IIP)
  • ISO/IEC FDIS 27031 [В разработке]
    Cybersecurity
    Information and communication technology readiness for business continuity
  • ISO/IEC 27032:2023
    Cybersecurity
    Guidelines for Internet security
  • ISO/IEC 27036-2:2022
    Cybersecurity
    Supplier relationships
    Part 2: Requirements
  • ISO/IEC 27036-3:2023
    Cybersecurity
    Supplier relationships
    Part 3: Guidelines for hardware, software, and services supply chain security
  • ISO/IEC CD 27090 [В разработке]
    Cybersecurity
    Artificial Intelligence
    Guidance for addressing security threats and failures in artificial intelligence systems
  • ISO/IEC WD TR 27103 [В разработке]
    Information technology
    Security techniques
    Cybersecurity and ISO and IEC Standards
  • ISO/IEC AWI TR 27109 [В разработке]
    Cybersecurity education and training
  • ISO/IEC 27400:2022
    Cybersecurity
    IoT security and privacy
    Guidelines
  • ISO/IEC CD 27404 [В разработке]
    Cybersecurity
    IoT security and privacy
    Cybersecurity labelling framework for consumer IoT
  • ISO/IEC 27071:2023
    Cybersecurity
    Security recommendations for establishing trusted connections between devices and services
  • ISO/IEC 27402:2023
    Cybersecurity
    IoT security and privacy
    Device baseline requirements
  • ISO/IEC FDIS 27403 [В разработке]
    Cybersecurity – IoT security and privacy – Guidelines for IoT-domotics
  • ISO/IEC 29147:2018
    Information technology
    Security techniques
    Vulnerability disclosure
  • ISO/IEC 30111:2019
    Information technology
    Security techniques
    Vulnerability handling processes
Технический комитет
ISO/TC 8
Ships and marine technology
  • Опубликовано 432 | Проекты на стандии разработки 70
  • ISO 23799:2024
    Ships and marine technology
    Assessment of onboard cyber safety
  • ISO/AWI 23816 [В разработке]
    Ships and marine technology
    Secured ship network based on IPv6 Ethernet network
Технический комитет
ISO/TC 22/SC 32
Electrical and electronic components and general system aspects
  • Опубликовано 163 | Проекты на стандии разработки 33
  • ISO/PAS 5112:2022
    Road vehicles
    Guidelines for auditing cybersecurity engineering
  • ISO/SAE CD PAS 8475 [В разработке]
    Road vehicles
    Cybersecurity Assurance Levels (CAL) and Targeted Attack Feasibility (TAF)
  • ISO/SAE AWI TR 8477 [В разработке]
    Road vehicles
    Cybersecurity verification and validation
  • ISO/SAE 21434:2021
    Road vehicles
    Cybersecurity engineering
Технический комитет
ISO/TC 121
Anaesthetic and respiratory equipment
  • Опубликовано 110 | Проекты на стандии разработки 43
  • ISO/CD TS 23543 [В разработке]
    Guidance for developing cybersecurity requirements in anaesthetic and respiratory equipment standards
Технический комитет
ISO/TC 178
Lifts, escalators and moving walks
  • Опубликовано 43 | Проекты на стандии разработки 15
  • ISO 8102-20:2022
    Electrical requirements for lifts, escalators and moving walks
    Part 20: Cybersecurity
Технический комитет
ISO/TC 215
Health informatics
  • Опубликовано 237 | Проекты на стандии разработки 63
  • ISO/CD TS 6268-1 [В разработке]
    Health informatics
    Cybersecurity framework for telehealth environments
    Part 1: Overview and Concepts
  • ISO/AWI TS 6268-2 [В разработке]
    Health informatics
    Cybersecurity framework for telehealth environments
    Part 2: Cybersecurity reference models of telehealth
  • ISO/IEEE 11073-40101:2022
    Health informatics
    Device interoperability
    Part 40101: Foundational
    Cybersecurity
  • ISO/IEEE 11073-40102:2022
    Health informatics
    Device interoperability
    Part 40102: Foundational
    Cybersecurity

References

  1. Digital megatrends. A perspective on the coming decade of digital disruption (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, 2019)
  2. The global risks report 2021 (World Economic Forum, 2021)
  3. Global strategic trends. The future starts today (UK Ministry of Defence, 2018)
  4. Global trends. Paradox of Progress (US National Intelligence Council, 2017)
  5. Global trends 2040. A more contested world (US National Intelligence Council, 2021)
  6. Ethics of geoengineering (Viterbi Conversations in Ethics, 2021)
  7. Technology vision 2020. We, the post-digital people (Accenture, 2020)
  8. Two years of GDPR. questions and answers (European Commission, 2020)
  9. Global trends and the future of Latin America. Why and how Latin America should think about the future (Inter-American Development Bank, Inter-American Dialogue, 2016)
  10. 20 New technology trends we will see in the 2020s (BBC Science Focus Magazine, 2020)
  11. Beyond the noise. The megatrends of tomorrow's world (Deloitte, 2017)
  12. Future outlook. 100 Global trends for 2050 (UAE Ministry of Cabinet Affairs and the Future, 2017)
  13. Global trends to 2030. Challenges and choices for Europe (European Strategy and Policy Analysis System, 2019)
  14. Global risks 2035 update. Decline or new renaissance? (Atlantic Council, 2019)
  15. Asia pacific megatrends 2040 (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, 2019)
  16. Foresight Africa. Top priorities for the continent 2020-2030 (Brookings Institution, 2020)