Cyber-physical systems integrate computational components (information processing) with physical processes, which interact through a network. Technological advances in the ‘Internet of Things’, ‘Robotics’, and ‘Autonomous vehicles’ are the foundation for making cyber-physical systems possible, and today there are examples of successful cyber-physical systems everywhere… from driver less trains, to smart buildings, to household appliances and everyday items such as cleaning robots, wearable fitness devices or electric bikes.

Cyber-physical systems provide an opportunity to positively improve our quality of life in many domains, ranging from transportation, to healthcare, farming, manufacturing, smart grids, and everyday living. A key challenge, however, is the need for engineering innovation to work in coordination with information technology innovation, as the physical meets the digital. Developing common languages and other commonalities in this pluri-disciplinary field will facilitate future development of these systems. In addition, as with many technological advances, unintended consequences of integrating cyber-physical systems are likely to emerge in future, and it is therefore important to think ahead about the ethics surrounding these systems and how future regulation can limit risks related to safety, responsibility, liability, privacy and more.

Technology trends


Robotics technology is developing quickly and is already able to replace human labour for a range of tasks. Vast improvements in the capabilities of robots are expected to continue and this will lead to changes across many industries[1,2,3]:

  • Healthcare will benefit from the increased use of robots in basic medicine and diagnostics, reducing costs for individuals and the economic burden of publicly funded health services.[1]
  • Robots will continue to take over human labour in manufacturing, displacing workers as a result – the pace of technological development may create extreme pressures on education and training systems to support the adaptation of workforces (see ‘Effects of automation’).[1,4] However, robotics is also expected to lead to new types of work[5], as large numbers of robotics technicians will be required to maintain these ‘fleets of robots’ and the data generated and collected by robots will be immense, leading to growing demand for data scientists to make use ofit.[3]
  • The agricultural sector will increasingly use robots for manual tasks such as seeding, weeding, and harvesting, with sensors improving in their ability to identify ripe produce, harvest plants and detect disease.[3]
  • A range of military applications is anticipated, raising increasingly complex ethical questions. If terrorist organizations and non-state armed groups have access to this technology, it will increase the complexity of conflict.[6]
  • The automotive and transportation sector will move towards increasing production and use of ‘Autonomous vehicles’, made possible by advances in robotics and other emerging technologies (see ‘5G’).[4] The carsharing company Uber, for example, is currently expanding its driverless-car programme. This may lead to a reduction in private car ownership and use.[5]

As robots increase in power, their applications are likely to grow. Computing for robots is now possible in the Cloud, increasing their processing power and speed.[7] Advances in sensors, speech-recognition technology and computer vision will all contribute to more advanced robotics products, including robots that are able to operate in uncontrolled settings – known as ‘open-world autonomy’.[3]

News stories

It won’t be long before robots become a normal part of our everyday lives. Soon, our mobile companions will provide everything from coaching to communication to companionship, keeping us independent as …
Human and robot system interaction in industrial settings is now possible thanks to ISO/TS 15066, a new ISO technical specification for collaborative robot system safety.
What if cyborgs were real? Partly robot, partly man, functioning as one. No, we are not talking science fiction anymore. The first one is here and his name is HAL.
Technical Committee
ISO/TC 299
  • Published 29 Standards | Developing 9 Projects
  • ISO/FDIS 5363 [Under development]
    Test methods for exoskeleton-type walking RACA robot
  • ISO/PAS 5672:2023
    Collaborative applications
    Test methods for measuring forces and pressures in human-robot contacts
  • ISO 8373:2021
  • ISO/FDIS 10218-1 [Under development]
    Safety requirements
    Part 1: Industrial robots
  • ISO/FDIS 10218-2 [Under development]
    Safety requirements
    Part 2: Industrial robot applications and robot cells
  • ISO 11593:2022
    Robots for industrial environments
    Automatic end effector exchange systems
  • ISO/CD 13482 [Under development]
    Safety requirements for service robots
  • ISO/TS 15066:2016
    Robots and robotic devices
    Collaborative robots

Autonomous vehicles

Autonomous vehicle technology is not a one-size-fits-all concept, as there are different considerations and implications for road, ship, or rail transport. The degree of automation can vary as well, and classified in ranges from Level 0 (fully manual) to Level 5 (driverless). The following discussion explores autonomous vehicles as a high-level trend only, where autonomous vehicles are understood as all forms of driverless transport systems.

Autonomous vehicles are already used in industrial settings, in some public transport systems (e.g. driverless trains), and automation technology is increasingly integrated in our cars (e.g. cruise control, self-parking technology or traffic jam pilot).[8,9] While the autonomous vehicle market is growing as a whole, with an expected CAGR of over 39% from 2019 to 2026, the deployment of fully automated (driverless) vehicles on public roads is still years away.[10,11] The impact of more autonomous vehicles is likely to be double-sided. They may eliminate the need for drivers of vehicles of all kinds: trucks, taxis, and public transport vehicles, representing a significant labour force impact in the coming decades.[1] At the same time, they may create opportunities for more efficient transport of goods and people to regional areas.[9] Indeed, a significant, expected benefit to society is improved population mobility due to use of autonomous vehicles for public transport, particularly in rural areas.[12]

Existing data on use of autonomous vehicles suggests they can reduce both safety incidents and fuel expenditure.[8] Autonomous vehicles are expected to make trade corridors significantly more efficient and, when combined with the energy efficiency of electric vehicles, increase the competitiveness of road transport against rail for the delivery of goods.[9]

Technology is also developing for autonomous vehicles beyond the road. Future innovations could include autonomous cargo ships and planes leading to more efficient supply chains in international trade.[8]

News stories

New standard just published.
Every year, well over a million people are killed in road traffic accidents. In almost all cases, these deaths occur due to crashes where human error was a significant factor. And while technology has …
Technical Committee
ISO/TC 241
Road traffic safety management systems
  • Published 3 Standards | Developing 2 Projects
  • ISO 39003:2023
    Road traffic safety (RTS)
    Guidance on ethical considerations relating to safety for autonomous vehicles
Technical Committee
Ships and marine technology
  • Published 431 Standards | Developing 72 Projects
  • ISO/TS 23860:2022
    Ships and marine technology
    Vocabulary related to autonomous ship systems
Technical Committee
Road vehicles
  • Published 1010 Standards | Developing 196 Projects
  • ISO/TR 4804:2020
    Road vehicles
    Safety and cybersecurity for automated driving systems
    Design, verification and validation
  • ISO/TS 22133:2023
    Road vehicles
    Test object monitoring and control for active safety and automated/autonomous vehicle testing
    Functional requirements, specifications and communication protocol
Technical Committee
ISO/TC 127
Earth-moving machinery
  • Published 179 Standards | Developing 17 Projects
  • ISO 17757:2019
    Earth-moving machinery and mining
    Autonomous and semi-autonomous machine system safety
Technical Committee
ISO/TC 204
Intelligent transport systems
  • Published 338 Standards | Developing 67 Projects
  • ISO 22737:2021
    Intelligent transport systems
    Low-speed automated driving (LSAD) systems for predefined routes
    Performance requirements, system requirements and performance test procedures
Technical Committee
ISO/TC 268
Sustainable cities and communities
  • Published 47 Standards | Developing 20 Projects
  • ISO 37168:2022
    Smart community infrastructures
    Guidance on smart transportation by Electric, Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (eCAVs) and its application to on-demand responsive passenger services with shared vehicles
  • ISO 37181:2022
    Smart community infrastructures
    Smart transportation by autonomous vehicles on public roads

Internet of Things

The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a system of interconnected devices embedded with software, sensors, and other technologies (such as digital twin, cloud computing, big data and ‘Artificial intelligence’), which allows them to exchange data over the Internet for the purpose of improving functionality and monitoring. IoT systems are software and data-intensive, as well as network centric. They can be quite complex, ranging from simple architecture to systems which are multi-tiered, distributed, and ‘Cyber-physical systems’. IoT systems are key enablers of ‘smart everything’, including smart homes and buildings, ‘Smart manufacturing’, ‘Smart cities’, and smart farming, but also wearable technologies, medical devices, and vehicles.[11] Currently, there are twice as many devices connected to the Internet as people, and IoT connections are still expected grow at 17% per year.[4,11] Experts predict that, by 2025, an average Internet user will be interacting with IoT devices nearly 4,900 times each day.[4]

This increased device connectivity will result in massive amounts of data, creating growing needs for data storage, analytical capacity, and data protection. The data gathered by these devices can contribute to improved strategies to reduce poverty in some contexts, as well as increased sustainability and environmental protection. However, the IoT could also pose risks, if data are not sufficiently protected, or if it is used for unethical purposes.[2]

The rollout of emerging communications and networking technologies such as ‘5G‘ and satellite IoT will increase the reach, efficiency, and capacity of IoT devices, further growing the demand for these products.[3,11] For example, improved IoT technology and increased connectivity are already fostering the development of remote surgery technologies, which will “bring previously inaccessible healthcare to worldwide populations.”[3]

News stories

Three new standards are set to help accelerate the arrival of a connected world.
The number of connected devices worldwide is growing exponentially and this “Internet of Things” affects every area of our lives from electricity to agriculture. A recently published International Standard …
Suppose a criminal were using your nanny cam to keep an eye on your house. Or your refrigerator sent out spam e-mails on your behalf to people you don’t even know. Now imagine someone hacked into your …
The Internet of Things (IoT) has the power to change our world. And while we are starting to see its incredible impact, we are still very much at the beginning of the transformational journey. Here’s a …
The Internet of Things (IoT) revolution will bring numerous improvements to all industrial sectors, but an area that will realize many of the advantages of IoT in the years ahead is transport. Here, two …
The Internet of Things is already changing lives today. Businesses are responding to the new promises offered and the challenges raised. Standards, meanwhile, help resolve some of the related complexities.
Technical Committee
Internet of things and digital twin
  • Published 45 Standards | Developing 16 Projects
  • ISO/IEC 20924:2021
    Information technology
    Internet of Things (IoT)
  • ISO/IEC 21823-1:2019
    Internet of things (IoT)
    Interoperability for IoT systems
    Part 1: Framework
  • ISO/IEC 21823-2:2020
    Internet of things (IoT)
    Interoperability for IoT systems
    Part 2: Transport interoperability
  • ISO/IEC 21823-3:2021
    Internet of things (IoT)
    Interoperability for IoT systems
    Part 3: Semantic interoperability
  • ISO/IEC 21823-4:2022
    Internet of things (IoT)
    Interoperability for IoT systems
    Part 4: Syntactic interoperability
  • ISO/IEC TR 22417:2017
    Information technology
    Internet of things (IoT) use cases
  • ISO/IEC 30141:2018
    Internet of Things (IoT)
    Reference Architecture
  • ISO/IEC 30147:2021
    Information technology
    Internet of things
    Methodology for trustworthiness of IoT system/service
  • ISO/IEC CD TS 30149 [Under development]
    Internet of things (IoT)
    Trustworthiness principles
  • ISO/IEC 30162:2022
    Internet of Things (IoT)
    Compatibility requirements and model for devices within industrial IoT systems
  • ISO/IEC 30165:2021
    Internet of Things (IoT)
    Real-time IoT framework
Technical Committee
Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection
  • Published 239 Standards | Developing 72 Projects
  • ISO/IEC 27001:2022
    Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection
    Information security management systems
  • ISO/IEC 27002:2022
    Information security, cybersecurity and privacy protection
    Information security controls
  • ISO/IEC DIS 27701 [Under development]
    Security techniques
    Extension to ISO/IEC 27001 and ISO/IEC 27002 for privacy information management
    Requirements and guidelines

Smart cities

Cities are the future of human organization, with over two-thirds of the global population expected to live in urban areas by 2030. This raises significant challenges, including the allocation of resources to growing populations and the management of their consumption and waste. Smart cities are rising to address these challenges by integrating smart technologies to address citizens’ needs more safely, sustainably, and efficiently, from goods and services to transport and logistics management. The World Economic Forum predicts that the technological tipping point for smart cities – that is, when they move from being novel entities to representing the norm – could occur as early as 2026.[13]

‘Smart’ can mean different things to different people. In ISO, a ‘smart city’ is considered to be one with “effective integration of physical, digital and human systems in the built environment to deliver a sustainable, prosperous and inclusive future for its citizens” (ISO/IEC 30182:2017, 2.14). Another helpful way to understand it is to look at smart as having three pillars: digital, physical, and economic. Digitally smart refers to the effective deployment of digital and communication technologies for city management. Physically smart refers to the adjustment and construction of sustainable infrastructures and processes that enhance the city’s resilience and the residents’ quality of life. Finally, economically smart refers to the effective collaboration between citizens and local businesses to share assets and resources to build a resilient community.[14] The evolution of smart cities is closely linked to innovation in ‘Internet of Things’, ‘5G‘ and DARQ technologies, ‘Distributed ledger‘, ‘Artificial intelligence’, ‘Extended reality’, ‘Quantum computing’, which are essential in supporting the deployment of smart cities around the globe.[3]

Smart cities can both improve the living conditions of residents and support more sustainable living arrangements. They do this by integrating smart grids (see ‘Energy’), energy-saving construction materials and buildings, efficient digital management systems for waste and other logistical needs and services to citizens.[8] This results in a more efficient use of resources and resilient, better-connected systems. However, with this increased connectivity also brings risks related to privacy and big-data sharing. Because a smart city depends on a highly interdependent connected network, this increases the risk that a security breach, hacking or technical issue such as a power cut could affect the entire system, with repercussions in all sectors.[15,16] There is also a concern about the ‘Big Brother’ dilemma – for smart technology to efficiently relay information and adapt systems to residents’ needs, big data must be collected using things like cameras, sensors, and IoT tools.[17]

To maintain citizens’ trust in the smart city concept, effective policies and regulations will be needed to protect residents’ privacy and personal information. Standardization plays an important role towards bringing trust amongst citizens, thanks to transparency and open processes, which is key for citizens acceptance and confidence.

News stories

SDG 11
Sustainable Cities and Communities
Make cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable
Our cities produce most of the world’s carbon emissions. What can we do to reduce their impact on the climate and how can International Standards help?
New guidance just published.
A new report from the World Economic Forum promotes an integrated approach as the solution to decarbonizing urban areas. Here are some top ISO standards to help.
A new standard for digital payment on public transport just published.
Global standards leaders IEC, ISO and ITU join forces to better serve cities of the future.
A series of standards that map the information technology needs of cities is underway.
What kind of city do we want to live in? One that is smart, resilient and sustainable, of course. To achieve our vision, we need to start planning now, with a little help from ISO standards. Dr Bernard …
Building more sustainably is becoming a necessity to address tomorrow’s climate and environmental challenges. Grenoble-Alpes Métropole has established itself as a leader in sustainable cities. 
A smart city is a resilient city, able to handle all the challenges of a changing world while keeping essential functions running. But how can a city know its level of resilience? A new International Standard …
Increasing urbanization worldwide means city living is the future, and digital innovation can help to make that future bright. This is the theme of this year’s World Cities Day and ISO International Standards …
City living is on the rise, having gone from 751 million of the world’s population in 1950 to 4.2 billion in 2018. What’s more, it’s expected to reach 6.7 billion in 20501. How can cities adapt and prepare …
Every year, a dozen organizations come together to focus on global standards collaboration in the area of information and communication technology. This year’s meeting, GSC-22, was held in Montreux, Switzerland, …
The populations of most world cities are growing fast, and with it come challenges and opportunities for keeping citizens safe and well. New International Standards for measuring and improving the performance …
Smart cities are more than just a buzzword. With expanding urban areas expected to host up to 70 % of the total world population by 2050, they are a necessity. “Standards make cities smarter” is the theme …
Technical Committee
ISO/TC 268
Sustainable cities and communities
  • Published 47 Standards | Developing 20 Projects
  • ISO/WD 37100 [Under development]
    Sustainable cities and communities
  • ISO 37106:2021
    Sustainable cities and communities
    Guidance on establishing smart city operating models for sustainable communities
  • ISO 37110:2022
    Sustainable cities and communities
    Management requirements and recommendations for open data for smart cities and communities
    Overview and general principles
  • ISO 37122:2019
    Sustainable cities and communities
    Indicators for smart cities
  • ISO 37123:2019
    Sustainable cities and communities
    Indicators for resilient cities
  • IEC/AWI 63205 [Under development]
    Smart Cities Reference Architecture (SCRA)
Technical Committee
Information technology
  • Published 3474 Standards | Developing 520 Projects
  • ISO/IEC DIS 17917 [Under development]
    Smart cities
    Guidance to establishing a decision-making framework for sharing data and information services
  • ISO/IEC AWI TR 20169 [Under development]
    Information technology
    Overview of smart city standardization
  • ISO/IEC 24039:2022
    Information technology
    Smart city digital platform reference architecture
    Data and service
  • ISO/IEC 30182:2017
    Smart city concept model
    Guidance for establishing a model for data interoperability
Technical Committee
ISO/TC 59/SC 17
Sustainability in buildings and civil engineering works
  • Published 13 Standards | Developing 2 Projects
  • ISO 21678:2020
    Sustainability in buildings and civil engineering works
    Indicators and benchmarks
    Principles, requirements and guidelines
Technical Committee
ISO/TC 205
Building environment design
  • Published 49 Standards | Developing 10 Projects
Technical Committee
Technical Management Board - groups
  • Published 72 Standards | Developing 7 Projects
  • ISO/TMBG/JSCTF-TF 19 ISO, IEC and ITU Joint Smart Cities Task Force


  1. Global trends. Paradox of progress (US National Intelligence Council, 2017)
  2. Foresight Africa. Top priorities for the continent 2020-2030 (Brookings Institution, 2020)
  3. Technology vision 2020. We, the post-digital people (Accenture, 2020)
  4. Digital economy report 2019. Value creation and capture: implications for developing countries (UN Conference on Trade and Development, 2019)
  5. Global Trends and the future of Latin America. Why and how Latin America should think about the future (Inter-American Development Bank, Inter-American Dialogue, 2016)
  6. Global risks 2035 update. Decline or new renaissance? (Atlantic Council, 2019)
  7. 20 New technology trends we will see in the 2020s (BBC Science Focus Magazine, 2020)
  8. AGCS trend compass (Allianz, 2019)
  9. Global connectivity outlook to 2030 (World Bank, 2019)
  10. What are the levels of automated driving? (Aptiv, 2020)
  11. Future possibilities report 2020 (UAE Government, 2020)
  12. Global strategic trends. The future starts today (UK Ministry of Defence, 2018)
  13. Global trends to 2030. Challenges and choices for Europe (European Strategy and Policy Analysis System, 2019)
  14. Technology outlook 2030. Technology & society (Det Norske Veritas, 2021)
  15. Beyond the noise. The megatrends of tomorrow's world (Deloitte, 2017)
  16. Emerging technologies and smart cities (Forbes, 2021)
  17. Digital megatrends. A perspective on the coming decade of digital disruption (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, 2019)